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(( New PDF )): ANSI AWWA D100-2011 Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage

(( New PDF )): ANSI AWWA D100-2011 Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage

Contents
-------------
Foreword
I Introduction. .................................. xiii
I.A Background. ................................... xiii
I.B History. .......................................... xiii
I.C Acceptance. .................................. xviii
II Special Issues. ................................. xix
III Use of This Standard. ..................... xix
III.A Purchaser Options and Alternatives. ............................. xix
III.B Information to Be Provided With Bid. .............................. xxvii
III.C Modification to Standard. ........... xxvii
IV Major Revisions. .......................... xxvii
V Comments. ................................. xxvii
Standard
1 General
1.1 Scope ................................................ 1
1.2 Definitions ........................................ 2
1.3 Drawings to Be Provided ................... 2
1.4 References ......................................... 3
2 Materials
2.1 General ............................................. 7
2.2 Material Specifications ...................... 7
3 General Design
3.1 Design Loads .................................. 10
3.2 Unit Stresses .................................... 20
3.3 Combined Stresses .......................... 21
3.4 Allowable Compressive Stresses for
Columns, Struts, and Shells ...... 24
3.5 Shell Girder, Intermediate Stiffeners,
and Compression Rings ............. 37
3.6 Roofs ............................................... 39
3.7 Cylindrical Shell Plates .................... 41
3.8 Anchorage ....................................... 41
3.9 Corrosion Allowance and Protection .................................. 47
3.10 Minimum Thickness and Size ......... 47
3.11 Joints ............................................... 49
3.12 Weld Design Values......................... 49
3.13 Reinforcement Around Openings .... 50
3.14 Equivalent Metric Equations ........... 52
4 Sizing and Design of Elevated Tanks
4.1 Standard Capacities ......................... 53
4.2 Heights for Elevated Tanks.............. 54
4.3 Standard Head Range ..................... 54
4.4 Cross-Braced Multicolumn Elevated Tanks .......................... 54
4.5 Tank Plates ...................................... 56
4.6 Pedestal Tanks................................. 57
4.7 Tank Stability Against Overturning 57
4.8 Lateral Load Distribution ................ 57
5 Accessories for Elevated Tanks
5.1 Steel Riser ....................................... 57
5.2 Pipe Connection.............................. 58
5.3 Overflow ......................................... 58
5.4 Access.............................................. 59
5.5 Vent ................................................ 61
5.6 Antennas and Related Equipment ................................ 61
5.7 Galvanic Corrosion ......................... 61
6 Sizing of Ground-Supported
Standpipes and Reservoirs ...... 61
7 Accessories for Ground-Supported Standpipes and Reservoirs
7.1 Flush-Type Cleanouts ...................... 62
7.2 Pipe Connections ............................ 62
7.3 Overflow ......................................... 62
7.4 Access.............................................. 63
7.5 Vent ............................................... 64
7.6 Antennas and Related Equipment ... 65
7.7 Galvanic Corrosion ......................... 65
8 Welding
8.1 Definitions and Symbols ................. 65
8.2 Qualification of Welding Procedures, Welders, and
Welding Operators .................... 65
8.3 Weld Joint Records .......................... 66
8.4 Butt Joints ....................................... 67
8.5 Lap Joints ........................................ 67
8.6 Flat Tank Bottoms Resting Directly on Grade or Foundation ............ 68
8.7 Shell-to-Bottom Joint ...................... 68
8.8 Shell Plates ...................................... 69
8.9 Tubular Column and Strut Sections ............................ 69
8.10 Steel Risers ...................................... 69
8.11 Roof Plates ...................................... 69
8.12 Maximum Thickness of Material to Be Welded ............................. 70
8.13 Lap Restrictions for Welded Lap Joints .................................. 70
8.14 Minimum Size of Fillet and Seal Welds ................................. 70
8.15 Minimum Length of Welds ............. 71
8.16 Intermittent Welding ....................... 71
8.17 Corrosion Protection ....................... 71
9 Shop Fabrication
9.1 Workmanship ................................. 71
9.2 Straightening ................................... 72
9.3 Finish of Plate Edges—Welded Work ......................................... 72
9.4 Rolling ............................................ 72
9.5 Double-Curved Plates ..................... 73
9.6 Columns ......................................... 73
9.7 Shop Assembly ................................ 73
9.8 High-strength Anchor Bolts ............ 73
9.9 Shipping .......................................... 73
10 Erection
10.1 Welds .............................................. 73
10.2 Preparation of Surfaces to Be Welded ................................. 74
10.3 Preheating Welded Joints ................. 75
10.4 Low-Hydrogen Electrodes and Welding Processes ..................... 76
10.5 Tack Welds ...................................... 76
10.6 Tank Assembly ................................ 76
10.7 Matching Plates ............................... 79
10.8 Grouting of Column, Riser, and Single-Pedestal Bases for
Elevated Tanks .......................... 79
10.9 High-Strength Anchors ................... 80
11 Inspection and Testing
11.1 General ........................................... 80
11.2 Inspection Report ............................ 80
11.3 Welders’ Credentials ........................ 80
11.4 Inspection of Welded Joints ............. 80
11.5 Number and Location of Radiographs for Butt-Weld Joints in Tank Shells, Load-Bearing Risers, and Single- Pedestal Columns ................................... 84
11.6 Procedures for Inspection of
Welded-Shell Butt Joints— Radiographic Testing ................ 85
11.7 Procedure for Inspection of Groove Welds in Tension Member Bracing by Ultrasonic Inspection ................ 88
11.8 Inspection by Air Carbon Arc
Gouging .................................... 88
11.9 Repair of Defective Welds ............... 88
11.10 Testing ............................................ 89
12 Foundation Design
12.1 General Requirements ..................... 89
12.2 Soil-Bearing Value ........................... 90
12.3 Safety Factors .................................. 90
12.4 Foundations for Cross-Braced Multicolumn Tanks .................. 91
12.5 Foundations for Single-Pedestal Tanks ........................................ 92
12.6 Foundations for Ground-Supported Flat-Bottom Tanks .................... 93
12.7 Detail Design of Foundations.......... 96
12.8 Concrete Design, Materials, and Construction ............................. 97
12.9 Backfill ............................................ 97
13 Seismic Design of Water Storage Tanks
13.1 General ........................................... 98
13.2 Design Earthquake Ground Motion .................................... 100
13.3 Cross-Braced, Column-Supported Elevated Tanks ........................ 135
13.4 Pedestal-Type Elevated Tanks ....... 137
13.5 Ground-Supported Flat-Bottom Tanks ...................................... 138
13.6 Piping Connections ...................... 149
13.7 Foundation Design for Ground-Supported Flat-Bottom Tanks .................. 151
13.8 Equivalent Metric Equations ......... 151
14 Alternative Design Basis for Standpipes and Reservoirs
14.1 Alternative Design Basis ................ 153
14.2 Materials ....................................... 155
14.3 General Design ............................. 161
14.4 Inspection ..................................... 164
14.5 Certification of Compliance .......... 167
Appendixes
A Commentary for Welded Carbon Steel Tanks for Water Storage .......... 169
B Default Checklist ......................... 199
Figures
1 Basic Wind Speed V from ASCE 7 ..................................... 14
2 Diagram for Checking Overturning Stability of Pedestal-Type Elevated Tanks (Wind or Seismic Events) .......................... 95
3 Extreme Frost Penetration–in Inches (Based on State Average) .................................... 97
4 Recommended Depth of Cover (in Feet Above Top of Pipe) ............ 98
5 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped,at 0.2-sec Period SS for Site
Class B for the Conterminous United States ........................... 102
6 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped, at 1-sec Period S1 for Site
Class B for the Conterminous United States ........................... 104
7 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped, at 0.2-sec Period SS for Site
Class B for Region 1 ................ 106
8 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped, at 1-sec Period S1 for Site
Class B for Region 1 ................ 108
9 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped, at 0.2-sec Period SS for Site
Class B for Region 2 ................ 110
10 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped, at 1-sec Period S1 for Site
Class B for Region 2 ................ 111
11 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped, at 0.2-sec Period SS for Site
Class B for Region 3 ................ 112
12 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped, at 1-sec Period S1 for Site
Class B for Region 3 ................ 113
13 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped, at 0.2-sec Period SS and
1-sec Period S1 for Site Class B for Region 4 ............................ 114
14 Mapped Maximum Considered
Earthquake Spectral Response
Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped,
at 0.2-sec Period SS and
1-sec Period S1 for Site Class B
for Hawaii ............................... 115
15 Mapped Maximum Considered
Earthquake Spectral Response
Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped,
at 0.2-sec Period SS for Site
Class B for Alaska ................... 116
16 Mapped Maximum Considered
Earthquake Spectral Response
Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped,
at 1-sec Period S1 for Site
Class B for Alaska ................... 117
17 Mapped Maximum Considered
Earthquake Spectral Response
Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped,
at 0.2-sec Period SS and 1-sec
Period S1 for Site Class B for
Puerto Rico, Culebra, Vieques,
St. Thomas, St. John, and
St. Croix .................................. 118
18 Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration, 5 Percent Damped, at 0.2-sec Period SS and 1-sec
Period S1 for Site Class B for Guam and Tutuila ................... 119
19 Region-Dependent Transition Period for Longer Period Ground Motion TL ................. 126
20 Diagram for Checking Foundation Stability of Cross-Braced, Column-Supported Elevated Tanks ...................................... 137
21 Bottom Piping Connection of a Self-Anchored, Ground-Supported Flat-Bottom Tank .................... 150
22 Isothermal Lines for Lowest One-Day Mean Temperatures and Normal Daily Minimum 30°F (–1.1°C) Temperature Line for January, United States and Southern Canada .................................... 159
23 Radiographic Requirements for Tank Shells According to Section 14 ............................... 167
24 Certification of Compliance With Requirements of ANSI/AWWA D100, Sec. 14 .......................... 168
A.1 Typical Undercut ........................... 186
A.2 Design Response Spectra—General Procedure ................................ 191
A.3 Design Spectral Response Acceleration That Causes the Tank to Slide Sai,slide ..................................... 192
A.4 Curve for Obtaining Factor Kp for the Ratio D/H ......................... 193
A.5 Curves for Obtaining Factors Wi/WT and Wc/WT for the Ratio D/H 194 A.6 Curves for Obtaining Factors Xi/H and Xc/H for the Ratio D/H .... 194
A.7 Pressure-Stabilizing Buckling Coefficient
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